Benefits to Health from Milk-Based Ingredients


The development of the dairy industry in India and the outstanding role dairy cooperatives have played since the beginning of Operation Flood are fundamental to the incredible growth story of the nation after Independence. India contributes 23% of the world’s milk production, making it the largest producer today. For India, the dairy industry assumes a significant role on a number of fronts. More than 80 million rural households are employed by this business, with the majority being small and marginal farmers as well as landless individuals.

The cooperative societies have freed the farmers from the constraints of gender, caste, religion, and community in addition to enabling them to become self-sufficient. The majority of the dairy industry’s workforce in the nation is made up of women producers. The industry is a significant employer, particularly for women, and it promotes the empowerment of women. Since 2001, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has designated June 1 as World Milk Day to recognise the value of milk as a staple food and to honour the dairy industry. Dr. Verghese Kurien’s birthday, November 26, is celebrated as National Milk Day in India (Press Information Bureau, Government of India, 2022).

The most complete food in nature is milk, according to legend. However, the traditional and modern views of milk’s function have been impressively broadened outside the realm of infants’ nutritional subsistence. Milk is more than just a source of nutrients for any newborn mammal, as well as for infant development and adult human nutrition. Biologically active components found in milk, such as casein and whey proteins, have been revealed to be increasingly significant for physiological and biochemical processes that have a significant impact on human metabolism and health. These findings go beyond the nutritional benefits of milk.

A family of phosphoproteins known as casein is a group of proteins found in milk. They have ionisable groups, hydrophobic sites, and hydrophilic sites, all of which are crucial for polymer formation. There are four different casein species, and each one has a unique isoelectric point, molecular mass, and amino acid makeup. Casein protein, which is present in milk and gives it its white color, is a type of protein. Casein protein makes up around 80% of cow’s milk. Casein protein can also be found in infant formulae, yogurt, cheese, and a number of dietary supplements in addition to milk.

Health Benefits of Casein
Complete Protein: Casein is a slow-digesting dairy protein and almost a complete protein
Mineral Binding: Binds Calcium and enhances its bioavailability
Anti-catabolic: It releases amino acids slowly, so people often take it before bed to help with recovery and reduce muscle breakdown while they sleep. 
Muscle Building: Several studies have shown it helps boost muscle growth.It provides a high amount of leucine, which initiates muscle protein synthesis 
Antibacterial and immune benefits: Some cell studies suggest it may provide antibacterial and immune benefits and reduce high blood pressure 
Triglyceride levels: One study in 10 overweight individuals found that it reduced triglyceride levels after a meal by 22%
Casein is the name of aReduction in free radicals: Some of the peptides in casein protein powder may have antioxidant effects and fight the build-up of harmful free radicals
Fat loss: One 12-week training study found the average fat loss among people taking the supplement was three times greater than in a placebo group.

Whey protein 
In reality, whey proteins are milk serum. Because they are a byproduct of the manufacture of cheese and casein, they are known as whey protein. It is a combination of globular proteins that are heat labile and soluble at any pH. It is a complete protein of excellent quality that includes all the necessary amino acids. In addition, compared to other forms of protein, it is very easily digested and swiftly absorbed from your gut. It is one of the best dietary sources of protein because of these characteristics.

There are three main types of whey protein powder:
Concentrate (WPC)
Isolate (WPI)
Hydrolysate (WPH) 

Health Benefits of Whey Protein
One of the best dietary sources of high quality protein is whey protein. In comparison to other proteins, it is fast absorbed and highly digested.
Whey protein is useful for increasing strength as well as preventing age-related muscle loss.
When someone has high blood pressure, whey proteins may help lower it. These two bioactive peptides are known as lactokinins.
Whey protein works well as an additional treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Whey protein has been demonstrated to help reduce inflammation by lowering blood levels of C-reactive protein when consumed in high dosages.
Whey protein supplements may help those with IBD.
By encouraging the production of glutathione, one of the body’s primary antioxidants, whey protein supplementation may improve the body’s antioxidant defenses.
Even more so than other forms of protein, whey protein is particularly satisfying. It is a helpful complement to weight loss because of this.

The value of milk based components for various age groups
Infants and young kids
The majority of the nutrients required for growth and development are found in milk. As a result, milk is a crucial component of a child’s diet up to the age of five. The milk contains all macro and micronutrients in a manner that is simple to assimilate. The biological value of milk proteins is quite high and is practically on par with that of meat, eggs, and other premium animal proteins.

It is advised to provide more whole milk to breastfed babies between the ages of 6 and 12 months. From 6 months to 1 year old youngsters should consume 500ml or more of milk each day. Whole cow’s milk can be introduced to infants after six months. It’s crucial to make sure the baby’s diet contains enough iron-containing weaning foods, such as cereals, eggs, lentils, and green leafy vegetables. Children shouldn’t drink skimmed milk because it contains less vitamin D and energy.

Teens and older kids
Milk is a significant source of calcium for older kids and teenagers. To fulfil their calcium needs, their diet should contain at least 500ml of milk. If youngsters don’t like plain milk, milkshakes, ice creams, and other milk-based foods may be added.

Pregnant and lactating women
There is an increased demand for calcium during pregnancy and lactation, and an additional requirement of 600 mg of calcium is advised. In order to meet this demand, milk and milk products—in addition to meals high in calcium—become a significant source of calcium during this crucial time in a woman’s life.

Most vegans find milk to be acceptable, which can enhance the quality of protein intake. Young vegetarian youngsters should consume a lot of whole milk because it is an excellent source of energy and other nutrients. Additionally, milk contains vitamin B12, which is typically absent from vegetarian diets.

Ideal for patients
Lack of appetite is a typical issue throughout times of illness and recovery. Even though the need for energy may be lessened, vital nutrients are still necessary. A useful and adaptable food during this critical period is milk.

For old age people 
For senior people who may also experience decreased appetite, milk is a great food. Milk offers a wide variety of necessary elements in an absorbable form. Older adults who drink whole milk get vitamin D, which may be especially helpful for housebound seniors who can’t get outside in the sun.

The current global interest in creating functional meals that promote health presents a good time to take use of the numerous naturally occurring bioactive milk components for inclusion in such formulations. Major proteins can be fractionated and isolated from colostrums and milk using industrial or semi-industrial scale processing procedures, and whey-derived native proteins, peptides, growth factors, and lipid fractions are already produced commercially. On the basis of these substances, it is anticipated that various ground-breaking goods would soon be introduced on markets around the world. They could be used to treat a variety of ailments, as well as babies, the elderly, and others with impaired immune systems.

Author’s Bio
Sindumathi Gurusamy1 B. Manjula2* and R. Aruna3
1Department Food Science and Nutrition, Community Science College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai- 625104
2Assistant Professor, Department of Processing and Food Engineering, 
College of Agricultural Engineering, Madakasira, 
3Assistant Professor, Department of Food Safety and Quality Assurance, 
College of Food Science and Technology, Pulivendula, 
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Lam, Guntur, 515 301 (A.P.).
*Corresponding author –